Archive for July, 2007

Pokeweed: an herb for all things pokey.

Now that I’m living on my home ground again, I’ve been feeling like writing about some real traditional Appalachian herbs. So for July’s berry-themed blog party, I chose a classic of Appalachian herbalism: pokeberry (Phytolacca americana).

A while back on the Herbwifery Forum, a few of us were reminiscing about growing up in West Virginia and North Carolina. From our informal survey, it seems like covering oneself in pokeberry juice and running around like a little demon is an essential part of an Appalachian childhood. And it’s no wonder. Pokeweed is everywhere in Southern Appalachia, and the ripe berries hang in shiny, inky purple-black clusters. Squish them in your hands, and they turn bright pink. What could be more fun?

Of course, we all knew that pokeberries were “poison,” so we didn’t eat them. (Unless someone said “I dare you,” that is. And even then we’d spit them right out again. I never knew anyone to get sick on them.)

The truth is, poke is strong stuff. It can be toxic even in moderate doses. Some herbalists stick to diluted homeopathic preparations of the plant, just to be on the safe side. But I prefer the old-fashioned way: drops of the tincture, spoonfuls of the decoction, sips of the wine, or a berry at a time. (Fresh plant only. Poke doesn’t take well to drying.)

So you might be asking, like my ten-year-old niece always does, “What’s it for?” Well, poke is for all things, um, pokey. Poke gets things moving in the body, especially the lymphatic system, the joints, and the metabolism. In other words, it’s an “alterative.” Used externally, it kills things (scabies, ringworm, etc.).

The most common indications for pokeberries in old-time Appalachian herbalism were “rheumatism” and “bad blood.” These days I’d call those “chronic joint pain” and “lymphatic sluggishness.” The usual prescription was to eat one berry a day for a week (without chewing the seeds), stop for a week, and repeat. Three berries, three times a week was another classic dose.

This tradition of on-and-off dosing is interesting. Perhaps poke inspires a reaction in the body—maybe in the immune system—that is triggered only by withdrawal of the dosage? Poke is often called an “immune stimulant,” but I imagine it’s more complicated than that. I often wonder about poke’s effects on autoimmune conditions, since many of the conditions associated with the symptoms of “rheumatism” turn out to have links to autoimmunity.

Modern herbalists sometimes use pokeberries to help stimulate an underactive thyroid, and old texts often mention goiter and obesity as important indications for the plant. It’s possible that poke acts directly on the thyroid, or indirectly on the metabolism through its general stimulation of “movement” in the body.

Poke’s movement-stimulating properties, combined with its affinities for the lymphatic system and “glands,” have led to its traditional use for many conditions involving hard, swollen masses in the body, including simple swollen lymph nodes, mumps, tonsillitis, adenitis, orchitis, mastitis, goiter, and cancer.

In my experience, poke root is one of the best things out there for inflammations of the breast, including mastitis. Fresh root poultices are traditional (though they can cause skin irritation), but tincture of the fresh root or a plaster of fresh berries will work, too, along with drop doses of the tincture internally. (Poke is contraindicated during pregnancy, but okay for nursing moms—in small doses, of course.)

One of poke’s many folk names is “cancer root,” and (like many other lymphatic herbs) it has a reputation as an old-time cancer remedy—especially for breast and skin cancers. It’s interesting that the old authors are split on its effectiveness. I’ve noticed that those who recommend poke for cancer support tend to emphasize using the fresh plant, rather than dried. This fits with what I’ve been taught. Always use fresh poke.

Whiskey tincture of the fresh root and fresh berry wine are the traditional Appalachian ways to preserve the plant for internal use. Traditional preparations of poke for external use often involved extraction in kerosene. This is one tradition I don’t follow. Poke-infused olive oil works just fine, thanks.

My favorite saying about poke comes from Tommie Bass. Talking about the old-time use of poke whiskey as a tonic, he said “It just straightened you out.”

An herbalist’s cheat-sheet for poke:

Parts used: fresh root, fresh berries (young shoots and leaves are also a “spring tonic” food, boiled in two changes of water).

Actions: alterative, lymphatic, antifungal, possible thyroid stimulant.

Affinities: lymph, breasts, testes, skin, joints.

Taste: acrid, slightly sweet, root slightly bitter.

Vitalist energetics: root slightly cooling and drying; berries slightly warming.

Michael Moore energetics (highlights): lymphatic, immune, skin/mucosa, hepatic, parasympathetic stimulant; cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, CNS sedative; berries for thyroid depression, root for adrenalin stress.

Tongue indications: swollen, with a white coating; sometimes foamy saliva (Michael Moore).

Specific indications: Hard, swollen lymph nodes. “Hurts to stick out tongue” (Matthew Wood).

Homeopathic mental indications: “Loss of personal delicacy, disregard of surrounding objects. Indifferent to life” (Boericke).

Have fun “poking” around!

PS: I’m going to post this month’s blog party on August 2nd—mainly because that’s the day we get real internet access at our new house, but also because it gives busy-in-the-summer folks an extra day to make a blog party post!

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Local Strawberry Shortcake


I made strawberry shortcake for a friend’s wedding last month. The wedding guests kept saying it was the best strawberry shortcake they’d ever had. There’s a very good reason for that: almost all the ingredients were local. That is, they were grown or made within 100 miles of the wedding, which was held in Marlboro, Vermont.

The ingredients:

Strawberries and Maple Syrup from Lilac Ridge Farm in West Brattleboro, Vermont.

Cream from Butterworks Farm in Westfield, Vermont.

Rhubarb from Tom and Dawn Huenink in Marlboro, Vermont (heirloom rhubarb plants originally from the MacArthurs of MacArthur Road in Marlboro).

Maple Sugar from Highland Sugarworks in Websterville, Vermont.

Flour from Champlain Valley Milling in Westport, New York. (Not all the wheat milled by Champlain Valley is locally grown, but the miller is very active in encouraging local farmers to grow grains.)

(Oh, and I used baking powder from Indiana and salt from Utah.)

Fruit shortcake is so simple to make, and so good. You can use any berries or fruits that are in season where you live. Here’s how to do it.

Make biscuits.

I used a version of the cream scone recipe from the Joy of Cooking because it’s simple and tasty. (You don’t have to cut in any butter, which makes things easier when you’re making 150 scones!)

2 cups all purpose flour (I used a mix of pastry and bread flours since that’s what I could get locally)
3 tablespoons maple sugar (1/3 cup if you use cane sugar—it’s not as sweet)
1 tablespoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt

1 1/4 cups heavy cream.

Mix and knead gently to form a dough. Shape the biscuits and bake them at 425 for about 15 minutes. They’re best used the same day they’re baked, but you can make the dough ahead of time and refrigerate it until it’s time to bake.

Pick strawberries.

Or raspberries. Or blackberries. Or peaches. Or cherries. Or currants. Or gooseberries. Or whatever’s ripe! You need about 1/2 cup per person. Prepare the fruit. You may want to add a little sweetener, depending on your taste and what fruit you use.

Whip cream.

I sweetened it with a little maple syrup. You might want to add vanilla.

I also made a very simple rhubarb sauce—simmer a few stalks of rhubarb in a little water and maple syrup to taste.

Assemble your shortcakes.

Pull apart a biscuit and put half on the plate. Top it with a big scoop of fruit and some whipped cream. Add the top half of the biscuit, more whipped cream, and the rhubarb sauce if you’re using it. Or build them however you like!


Coming soon: A roundup of resources for local eating.

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Blog Party: Herbs for irritated skin.

The June Blog Party theme was “Herbs for irritated skin,” just in time for summer in the Northern Hemisphere.

As you might suspect, a few herbs were mentioned in just about every post (think plantain, chickweed, calendula). But there were surprises too. (Have you ever used anise hyssop for skin irritation? Lime zest? Prickly pear? Moneywort?)

Here are this month’s posts:

Kiva Rose of A Medicine Woman’s Roots gave us a very thorough inventory of the herbs she uses for summer skin problems.

Angie at The Herbalist’s Path contributed tips and recipes, including a delicious-sounding facial toner.

Ananda at Plant Journeys illustrated her extensive post with lovely photos of her favorite plants for skin irritation.

Darcey of Gaia’s Gifts gave us her favorite recipes, including the aptly named “Plantain Itchy Spray.”

I wrote about that most basic of skin-soothing recipes, the spit poultice.

And of course the inimitable Henriette of Henriette’s Herbal Blog gave a wide-ranging and useful roundup of remedies for all kinds of skin problems.

Next month’s party: Berries!

July in the Northern Hemisphere means berries. Strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, blackberry, gooseberry, elderberry, huckleberry, mulberry, and currant. Ground cherry, highbush cranberry, mountain ash, honeysuckle, barberry, juniper, partridge berry, and virginia creeper. I bet you can think of at least that many more.

How do you use berries and berry plants medicinally? Write about one plant or several. Let’s have a berry party!

Put your post on your blog during the last week of July, and email me a link.

On August 1st, I’ll post the party here!

(If you’re interested in hosting a blog party, or have ideas for themes, let me know!)

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